Large amounts of neopterin are produced and released from human macrophages on stimulation with interferon-gamma. Neopterin is biologically stable, and it can be easily quantified in human body fluids. Neopterin measurements are useful to monitor allograft recipients to detect immunological complications. In autoimmune diseases, neopterin concentrations reflect the extent and activity of the disease. In infectious syndromes and in patients with cancer, neopterin concentrations provide prognostic information. In addition to providing clinically useful information, neopterin monitoring allows insight into the immunopathogenesis of a variety of diseases.