Sequential phosphorylation of rhodopsin at multiple sites

Biochemistry. 1993 Jun 1;32(21):5718-24. doi: 10.1021/bi00072a030.


Photolyzed rhodopsin is phosphorylated at multiple serine and threonine residues during the quenching of phototransduction. Sites of phosphorylation by rhodopsin kinase have been localized to the C-terminal region of rhodopsin, but no information was available on the kinetics and identity of phosphorylated residues. To determine the kinetics of phosphorylation at specific residues, the phosphorylated C-terminal peptide of rhodopsin (330DDEASTTVSKTETSQVAPA) obtained by proteolysis of rhodopsin with endoproteinase Asp-N was subjected to further subdigestion followed by electrospray mass spectrometry. Analysis of monophosphorylated peptide revealed that the major initial phosphorylation site is 338Ser. The analysis of di- and triphosphorylated peptides indicated that 343Ser or 336Thr residues are subsequent phosphorylation sites. These three residues, located in the C-terminal region of rhodopsin, are likely to be key phosphorylation sites of rhodopsin during the quenching of phototransduction. Identification of the kinetics of phosphorylation will facilitate understanding the functional significance of rhodopsin phosphorylation at multiple sites and the mechanism of rhodopsin kinase action.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Cattle
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Endopeptidases / metabolism
  • Eye Proteins*
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1
  • Kinetics
  • Models, Structural
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Peptide Fragments / isolation & purification
  • Phosphopeptides / isolation & purification
  • Phosphorylation
  • Protein Kinases / metabolism*
  • Protein Structure, Secondary
  • Rhodopsin / chemistry
  • Rhodopsin / isolation & purification
  • Rhodopsin / metabolism*
  • Rod Cell Outer Segment / metabolism


  • Eye Proteins
  • Peptide Fragments
  • Phosphopeptides
  • Rhodopsin
  • Protein Kinases
  • G-Protein-Coupled Receptor Kinase 1
  • Endopeptidases