Occupation and cancers of the lung and bladder: a case-control study in Bombay

Int J Epidemiol. 1993 Apr;22(2):185-91. doi: 10.1093/ije/22.2.185.


Associations between occupation and cancers of the lung (n = 246) and bladder (n = 153) were examined in a case-control study. Controls (n = 212) comprised cases of oral (75%) and pharyngeal cancers (13%) and non-neoplastic oral diseases (12%) at the same hospital. Only males were studied. A personal interview was conducted and a lifetime occupational history and information on demographic and relevant confounding factors including tobacco use were obtained. For lung cases, comparing 'ever' employed with 'never' employed in a particular occupation, significantly elevated risks (adjusted for smoking) were found for textile workers (odds ratio [OR] = 1.99, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3-3.6) and cooks (OR = 4.48, 95% CI: 1.2-16.9). High risks were also observed among ship and dockyard workers (OR = 2.87, 95% CI: 0.8-10.1) and wood workers (OR = 2.88, 95% CI: 0.9-9.6). For bladder cancers, significantly elevated risk was observed only for chemical/pharmaceutical plant workers (OR = 4.48; 95% CI: 1.2-16.5). Two other sets of risk estimates were obtained: one by comparison with a second unexposed group made up of occupations where there was little likelihood of exposure to any cancer-causing occupational agent, and the other by fitting logistic regression models to the data. All methods yielded similar risk estimates. Tobacco smoking but not tobacco chewing was a risk factor for both sites.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Chemical Industry*
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • Humans
  • India
  • Lung Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Male
  • Occupational Diseases / epidemiology*
  • Occupational Exposure
  • Occupations
  • Odds Ratio
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Textile Industry*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / epidemiology*
  • Wood