Expression of monocyte chemotactic and activating factor in rheumatoid arthritis. Regulation of its production in synovial cells by interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor

Arthritis Rheum. 1993 Jun;36(6):762-71. doi: 10.1002/art.1780360605.


Objective: To investigate whether monocyte chemotactic and activating factor (MCAF) contributes to the accumulation of macrophages in the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA).

Methods: MCAF was measured by radioimmunoassay. MCAF gene expression was determined by Northern blotting and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Recombinant human MCAF was injected into rabbit joints to evaluate the effect of MCAF on infiltration of macrophages.

Results: High levels of MCAF were detected in synovial fluid from patients with RA. Cells freshly isolated from synovial fluid expressed MCAF messenger RNA (mRNA). Fibroblast-like synoviocytes were found to express MCAF mRNA and to secrete MCAF in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor in vitro. IL-1 also promoted MCAF gene expression in rabbit synovial tissue in vivo. MCAF caused marked infiltration of macrophages in rabbit synovial tissue.

Conclusion: Our findings suggest that MCAF may contribute to the accumulation of macrophages in inflamed rheumatoid joints.

MeSH terms

  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / genetics
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / metabolism*
  • Arthritis, Rheumatoid / pathology
  • Base Sequence
  • Blotting, Northern
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Chemotactic Factors / genetics
  • Chemotactic Factors / metabolism
  • Chemotactic Factors / physiology*
  • Cytokines / pharmacology
  • Fibroblasts / chemistry
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1 / pharmacology
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • RNA, Messenger / analysis
  • Recombinant Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Recombinant Proteins / pharmacology
  • Synovial Fluid / chemistry
  • Synovial Fluid / cytology
  • Synovial Membrane / chemistry
  • Synovial Membrane / cytology
  • Time Factors
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / pharmacology


  • Chemokine CCL2
  • Chemotactic Factors
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukin-1
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha