Image cytometric DNA analysis in transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder

Cancer. 1993 Jul 1;72(1):182-9. doi: 10.1002/1097-0142(19930701)72:1<182::aid-cncr2820720133>;2-w.


Background: The current study was initiated to investigate measurable objective and reproducible characteristics that might have prognostic significance in bladder cancer.

Methods: Tumor samples from 91 patients with primary transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder were studied by DNA image cytometry and cytogenetic analysis. Image cytometry is a more sensitive method of determining ploidy than flow cytometry, especially in tumors with a low number of aneuploid cells.

Results: There was a significant difference in survival between DNA image cytometry-determined diploid and nondiploid cases. The presence of nuclei with a high DNA content indicated poor prognosis. The 2C deviation index (2CDI) also was an indicator of survival. Image cytometry-determined factors also were found to be strong predictors of progression-free survival. In multivariate analysis, 2CDI was the only cytometric parameter with an independent but weak correlation with survival. In multivariate analysis, none of the cytometric parameters had an important contribution to prediction of progression-free survival. In superficial tumors (Ta and T1), 2CDI appeared to be the most important independent predictor of survival. With respect to progression-free survival, tumors with a high mitotic index proved to have a worse prognosis.

Conclusions: Parameters determined by DNA image cytometry appear to be valuable in predicting survival and progression-free survival and may be useful in addition to the classic parameters of stage and grade, especially in superficial TCC.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Transitional Cell / mortality
  • DNA, Neoplasm / analysis*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Ploidies*
  • Prognosis
  • Survival Analysis
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms / mortality


  • DNA, Neoplasm