Interleukin-9 (IL-9) is a mouse T-cell-derived cytokine that supports the growth of mucosal type mast cells suggesting its role in the regulation of type I hypersensitivity reactions. Therefore the possible effect of IL-9 on the in vitro regulation of IL-4-induced IgE and IgG1 releases in the mouse was investigated. In this report, we present evidence that IL-9 potentiated IL-4-induced IgE and IgG1 releases from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-primed murine B lymphocytes, whereas IL-9 alone was ineffective. The potentiating effect of IL-9 is specific for IgE and IgG1 since no effect on IgM production was observed. This potentiating effect was neither related to an enhanced cell viability, nor to an alteration of the IL-4-induced expression of class II antigens by murine B cells. Besides the fact that IL-9 increased the number of IgG1-secreting cells, this cytokine might also enhance immunoglobulin release on a cell basis. Taken together, these data suggest that IL-9 plays an in vitro regulatory role in antibody synthesis, probably via a direct action on murine B lymphocytes.