Cognitive processes have been increasingly implicated in Pavlovian conditioning. Research in the past year has focused on questions of stimulus selection and the internal representation of events and the relations between them. Recent data support negative feedback models of selection that assume conditioning-dependent changes in processing of conditioned and unconditioned stimulus events, and suggest potential neural mechanisms that may underlie these processes. New models of conditioning propose a more detailed representation of individual conditioning episodes than traditionally assumed. The results of investigations into conditional discrimination learning imply a hierarchical organization of event representations, and illustrate the importance of conditioned modulatory processes as distinct from response elicitation.