The last 20 years have witnessed remarkable improvements in the treatment of tuboovarian abscesses. Gone are the days of significant mortality associated with ruptured and unruptured TOAs. Broad-spectrum antibiotics have enabled patients to be treated solely with medical therapy, avoiding the need for surgery. Operative intervention is still necessary in 25% of cases of unruptured TOAs, but the combination of conservative surgical procedures, such as unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent therapy have reduced the need for total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy greatly. Although fertility after TOAs is compromised significantly, new advances in reproductive technology, including in vitro fertilization and donor egg transplantation, represent reproductive options for these women. Percutaneous drainage and laparoscopic treatment of TOAs are becoming popular treatment options, but prospective studies urgently are needed to assess their efficacy.