Sera of 52 Lyme borreliosis patients classified according to their clinical features were analysed by Western blot using as antigens Borrelia strains belonging to three recently described genomic species. The antibody response was demonstrated to be homologous within each genospecies. Serum reactivity was studied for each of the type strains Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (strain B31T), Borrelia garinii (strain 20047T) and group VS461. Seven of 15 sera (46.6%) of patients with meningoradiculitis showed preferential reactivity with Borrelia garinii (strain 20047T), all of 8 sera (100%) of patients with acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans showed preferential reactivity with group VS461 (strain VS461) and 8 of 16 sera (50%) of patients with arthritis showed preferential reactivity with Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto (strain B31T). The presence of a strong response to OspA and OspB proteins of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu stricto was found only in this last group of patients. These results suggest that there are clinical implications of the recently described modifications in the taxonomy of Borrelia burgdorferi.