A nationwide survey of neonatologists was conducted to determine the common management of neonatal seizures. The questionnaire addressed practice setting, causes, length of treatment, and criteria used in discontinuation of treatment. A response rate of 68% was achieved. Results indicate continued disagreement among practitioners. The prevailing literature recommends treatment of neonatal seizures in the acute phase. Recent studies indicate that 8% to 15% of infants with neonatal seizures will have recurrent seizures after the newborn period. Animal models have shown that brain growth retardation and behavioral and learning impairment may occur from the use of phenobarbital in early infancy. The question of continued treatment of neonatal seizures beyond the acute phase is raised.