Serum samples of 64 consecutive patients who underwent renal transplantation in our institution were examined for the presence of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity against endothelial cells (EC). From each patient serum samples were obtained immediately before transplantation and 1 week, 1 month and 1 year thereafter. The results were evaluated in the context of tests to measure donor-specific humoral immunity against lymphocytes and monocytes, and related to parameters of presensitization, graft survival, and histology. Sera from 10 patients were positive for ADCC on a panel of HLA-typed endothelial cells. In 8 patients sera were already positive before transplantation and remained positive thereafter. In 4 patients a positive crossmatch with donor T and B cells and monocytes could be observed after transplantation. In only one patient were these crossmatches positive before transplantation. A significant correlation was found between ADCC positivity and vascular rejection (P = 0.015); in addition graft survival was significantly better in the ADCC negative group vs. the positive group (P = 0.0004). These data demonstrate the significance of allospecific anti EC antibodies for the occurrence of vascular rejection and graft loss after renal transplantation.