We have developed a system to acquire in vivo three-dimensional (3D) colour velocity images of peripheral vasculature. A clinical ultrasound system was modified by mounting the transducer on a motor-driven translation stage, allowing planar ultrasound images to be acquired along a 37 mm long stroke. A 3D velocity image is acquired by digitizing, in synchrony with the cardiac cycle, successive video images as the transducer is moved over the skin surface. 3D images require about 1 min to acquire and 10 min to reconstruct before being viewed interactively. Image acquisition at several points in the cardiac cycle permits a cine-type reconstructed image. Geometrical, temporal and velocity accuracy of the acquisition and reconstruction have been quantified and found not to degrade the image.