Human subgroup F adenoviruses, types 40 and 41, have two genes that could specify different fiber proteins, a long fiber with 21 or 22 pseudorepeat motifs in the shaft, and a short fiber with 12 motifs. We show that for adenovirus type 40, both proteins are expressed from separate late regions of the genome. They are incorporated into the virion with only one fiber per penton base, unlike avian adenoviruses which have two fibers extending from each penton. Comparison of known adenovirus fiber sequences suggests that the two fibers in adenovirus 40 and 41 arose through an external recombination event rather than having evolved from each other directly. Two alternative fibers on the virion may imply the existence of two distinct receptors.