The Winnipeg Rh Laboratory has reviewed its experiences with maternal CW alloimmunization. From September 24, 1956, to March 31, 1992, 12 women with significant CW alloimmunization underwent 18 pregnancies. In 3 (4 pregnancies) the antibody, despite its strength, was 'naturally occurring' (i.e. there was no known exposure to CW-positive red cells). The remaining 9 women (14 pregnancies) had CW-positive husbands. Two had CW-negative babies and a third infant, probably CW negative, was stillborn and macerated at 43 weeks gestation. Eleven babies were CW positive and had hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN), with antiglobulin-positive red cells. Five did not require treatment; 2 needed phototherapy only, and 4 (born between 1956 and 1963) required exchange transfusions. No anti-CW screening was carried out until 1977; thereafter it was sporadic, 11 of 51 screening red cells being CW positive in the 39-month period ending March 31st, 1992. From November 1, 1977, to March 31, 1992, 24 women (30 pregnancies, 31 conceptuses) with insignificant anti-CW alloantibodies were identified. Extrapolating these figures to the entire period from September 24, 1956, to March 31, 1992, we estimate that at least 430 women (at least 573 pregnancies) were CW alloimmunized, most of the antibodies being 'naturally occurring'. Only 2% of the conceptuses were CW positive and affected; none were severely affected. Anti-CW is relatively common, occurring in about 1 pregnant Manitoban woman in 1,100. On very rare occasions (11 times in Manitoba in 36 years and 5 months) anti-CW HDN occurs which, although not severe, may end in kernicterus with brain damage or neonatal death unless it is detected promptly and treated appropriately.