Scleroderma (SSc) is a disease characterized by skin fibrosis but it is the end-organ effect of microvascular injury and fibrosis that is important prognostically. Pulmonary involvement in SSc patients, either of parenchymal fibrosis and/or pulmonary hypertension, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Interstitial lung disease occurs more commonly in patients with diffuse SSc and is associated with a loss of lung volume, as well as a defect of gas exchange. Parenchymal fibrosis may also cause pulmonary hypertension. Isolated pulmonary hypertension occurs exclusively in patients with limited SSc and is detectable by a reduced DCO. The early identification of either manifestation is difficult. Patients may have minimal symptoms, unremarkable physical findings, normal chest radiographs and/or minimally abnormal pulmonary function tests at a time when significant lung pathology is present. It is essential to attempt to identify pulmonary disease early, at a potentially reversible stage. Multiple therapeutic endeavours have yielded only short-term or minimal benefits in symptoms and pulmonary function, and thus a major alteration in SSc pulmonary prognosis has not been achieved. Further study of the pathogenesis of this disease manifestation will be helpful in its earlier identification and intervention.