The T- and B-cell receptor (TCR and BCR) signal transduction processes involve a coordinated interplay between two classes of non-receptor protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs), the Src-family and the Syk/ZAP-70 family of PTKs. Following antigen-receptor stimulation, the Src-family of PTKs mediate the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues contained in a signalling motif localized in the TCR and BCR subunits. The phosphorylation of this signalling motif recruits the Syk/ZAP-70 family of PTKs into the antigen receptor complex. This mechanism requires the tandem SH2 domains in ZAP-70 complexing to two critically spaced phosphotyrosine residues within the signalling motif. The clustering of Syk/ZAP-70 and cross-talk between this family and the Src-PTKs regulates subsequent signalling events that lead to a variety of cellular responses, such as antibody secretion, lymphokine production, cytolytic activity, proliferation, differentiation and cell survival.