Misclassification of smoking status among Southeast Asian adult immigrants

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1995 Dec;152(6 Pt 1):1917-21. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm.152.6.8520755.


A total of 1,403 Southeast Asian adult immigrant males (n = 783) and females (n = 620) from Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam who currently resided in Central Ohio were interviewed to determine the self-reported smoking prevalence among them, and underwent biochemical confirmation of their smoking status. Variables having to do with the subjects' sociodemography, acculturation, and smoking history that were related to the misclassification of smoking status were also investigated. Self-reported current smoking rates were 40.9% and 5.6% for males and females, respectively. After verification of the subjects' smoking status by saliva cotinine assay (smoker status > or = 14 ng/ml), the rates of smoking were found to be greater, at 43.7% for males and 14.8% for females. Years of education, self-reported smoking status, country of origin, and method of healthcare payment were significant predictors of misclassification. These findings suggest that the prevalence of smoking is higher among Southeast Asian adult females than has been previously reported. Variables that predict misclassification with regard to smoking status are presented, and their implications for clinicians and researchers are discussed.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acculturation
  • Adult
  • Cambodia / ethnology
  • Cotinine / analysis
  • Educational Status
  • Emigration and Immigration / statistics & numerical data*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Laos / ethnology
  • Male
  • Ohio / epidemiology
  • Prevalence
  • Regression Analysis
  • Saliva / chemistry
  • Smoking / epidemiology
  • Smoking / ethnology*
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Vietnam / ethnology


  • Cotinine