Pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis has been associated with renal angiomyolipoma in case reports, but the prevalence of this association has not been well documented. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of renal angiomyolipoma in a series of subjects with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. Eighteen consecutive patients with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis were seen at a single institution between 1989 and 1994. Of these, one patient was excluded because she did not have an abdominal computed tomographic (CT) scan. We found eight out of 17 (47%) patients with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis to have renal angiomyolipomas. These were found either at surgery or on abdominal CT scanning. Thus, renal angiomyolipomas occur commonly in association with pulmonary lymphangiomyomatosis. Consequently, the early detection of renal angiomyolipoma by abdominal CT may be important, because lesions with dimensions larger than 4 cm may present an increased risk for complications related to tumor growth or hemorrhage. Serial follow-up by ultrasonography or CT scanning is important in identifying and monitoring high-risk patients. Prophylactic treatment (partial or total nephrectomy) may be considered for patients with tumors that show significant growth or other complications, such as hemorrhage.