Intrarenal and extrarenal humoral factors have been proposed as mediators and modulators of the renal hyperemic response to amino acid infusion. Among the potential modulators, angiotensin II (AII) constitutes the most important candidate due to its critical role in the control of glomerular and tubular function. The modulatory effect of AII has been assessed by (1) measuring the changes in plasma renin activity (PRA)/AII during the normal hyperemic response, and (2) by assessing the levels of PRA/AII and the response to AII-suppressing agents in conditions with no vasodilatory response during amino acid infusion. Administration of a protein load in normal animals or humans does not modify PRA/AII. Absence of a vasodilatory response in various experimental conditions (nitric oxide blockade in normal rats, experimental models of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, chronic glomerulonephritis, cyclosporine administration) is characterized by a significant decrease in proximal tubular reabsorption during amino acid infusion. Converting enzyme inhibitors or AII receptor antagonist restore normal tubular function and the increase in glomerular filtration rate during amino acid infusion. Absence of a vasodilatory response is also associated with increases in kidney AII levels in some of these conditions. These results suggest that (1) AII modulates the amino acid-induced hyperemia through its inhibitory effect on proximal tubular reabsorption and activation of the tubuloglomerular feedback system, and (2) that the expression of the modulatory effect of AII may depend on the interaction between AII and other intrarenal systems like nitric oxide.