Degradation of 1,4-dichlorobenzene by Xanthobacter flavus 14p1

Appl Environ Microbiol. 1995 Nov;61(11):3884-8. doi: 10.1128/aem.61.11.3884-3888.1995.


Xanthobacter flavus 14p1 was isolated from sludge of the river Mulde by selective enrichment with 1,4-dichlorobenzene as the sole source of carbon and energy. The bacterium did not use other aromatic or chloroaromatic compounds as growth substrates. During growth on 1,4-dichlorobenzene, stoichiometric amounts of chloride ions were released. Degradation products of 1,4-dichlorobenzene were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. 3,6-Dichloro-cis-1,2-dihydroxycyclohexa-3,5-diene and 3,6-dichlorocatechol were isolated from culture fluid. 2,5-Dichloromuconic acid and 2-chloromaleylacetic acid as well as the decarboxylation product 2-chloroacetoacrylic acid were identified after enzymatic conversion of 3,6-dichlorocatechol by cell extract. 1,4-Dichlorobenzene dioxygenase, dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase activity were induced in cells grown on 1,4-dichlorobenzene. The results demonstrate that 1,4-dichlorobenzene degradation is initiated by dioxygenation and that ring opening proceeds via ortho cleavage.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Biodegradation, Environmental
  • Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase
  • Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase
  • Chlorobenzenes / chemistry
  • Chlorobenzenes / metabolism*
  • Dioxygenases*
  • Environmental Pollutants / metabolism
  • Fermentation
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria / isolation & purification
  • Gram-Negative Aerobic Bacteria / metabolism*
  • Oxidoreductases / biosynthesis
  • Oxygen Consumption
  • Oxygenases / biosynthesis
  • Water Microbiology


  • Chlorobenzenes
  • Environmental Pollutants
  • 4-dichlorobenzene
  • Oxidoreductases
  • Oxygenases
  • Dioxygenases
  • Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase
  • Catechol 2,3-Dioxygenase
  • trans-1,2-dihydrobenzene-1,2-diol dehydrogenase