Review article: the continuing development of proton pump inhibitors with particular reference to pantoprazole

Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 1995 Aug;9(4):363-78. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2036.1995.tb00394.x.


Inhibition of the gastric proton pump is gaining acceptance as the treatment of choice for severe gastrooesophageal reflux disease, and for treatment of duodenal and gastric ulceration. Three of these drugs are now available (omeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole) and more are being developed. Proton pump inhibitors share the same core structure, but differ in terms of substituents on this core. The substitutions are able to modify some important chemical properties of the compounds. For example, pantoprazole is significantly more acid-stable than omeprazole or lansoprazole. E3810 is significantly less stable than the other compounds. We present an explantation for this finding that depends on the relative pK values for the pyridine and benzimidazole nitrogens, especially the former. Pantoprazole formulated in an enteric-coated tablet displays high bioavailability and linear pharmacokinetics whether on single or multiple dose regimens. Although all three proton pump inhibitors provide a similar chemical conversion to sulphenamides, which are highly reactive cysteine reagents, these reagents derivatize different cysteines in the extracytoplasmic or membrane domain of the pump and inhibit the pump at different rates. Whereas the differences in chemical reactivity can be explained by the solution chemistry of the compounds, selective derivatization of different cysteines on the protein argues for an involvement of pump structure in response to the presence of the proton pump inhibitor on its luminal surface. This suggests that the proton pump inhibitors, which were originally designed to take advantage of only the highly acidic space generated in the parietal cell by the production of the sulphenamide, are made even more selective by the protein they target. Pantoprazole is metabolized by a combination of phase I and phase II metabolism, and has also been shown to have a very low potential for drug interaction. Studies of acid secretion in man have shown this compound to be an effective and long lasting inhibitor of acid secretion. The pharmacodynamics explain the cumulative effect of repeated doses and maximal acid secretory capacity with a once daily dosage.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles
  • Benzimidazoles / pharmacology*
  • Benzimidazoles / therapeutic use*
  • Duodenal Ulcer / drug therapy
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / chemistry
  • Enzyme Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Models, Molecular
  • Omeprazole / analogs & derivatives
  • Pantoprazole
  • Peptic Ulcer / drug therapy*
  • Proton Pumps / drug effects*
  • Sulfoxides / pharmacology*
  • Sulfoxides / therapeutic use*


  • 2-Pyridinylmethylsulfinylbenzimidazoles
  • Benzimidazoles
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Proton Pumps
  • Sulfoxides
  • Pantoprazole
  • Omeprazole