This study examines the relationship between the psychosocial work environment and cross-sectional job dissatisfaction and prospective psychiatric distress in a cohort of Hopkins Medical School graduates in midcareer. An instrument was constructed consisting of five scales: psychological job demands, patient demands, work control, physician resources, and coworker support. The results of scale reliability and factor analysis are presented. Higher job demands were found to be associated with increases in job dissatisfaction and psychiatric distress and greater resources were associated with decreased levels of dissatisfaction and distress. In multiple-regression analysis, only work control and social support were found to be independently associated with dissatisfaction and distress. These results suggest that the presence of control and social support at work protects physicians from developing job dissatisfaction and psychiatric distress.