Omeprazole induces CYP1A in the human liver and gut, which has led to concern about possible side effects. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of omeprazole on phase 1 and phase 2 enzymes in the rat and human. Male rats were treated with intraperitoneal (40 or 80 mg/kg) or oral omeprazole (40 mg/kg) for 5 or 14 days, respectively. The activities and amounts of CYP1A, uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase, and glutathione transferase were determined in liver and gut. Enzyme activities were also determined in duodenal biopsy specimens from six healthy human volunteers before and after treatment with omeprazole (20 mg/day) for 10 days. Treatment with intraperitoneal omeprazole (40 mg/kg; 80 mg/kg) coinduced uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (36%; 66%), glutathione transferase (22%; 50%), and CYP1A (26%; 50%) in rat liver. In rat small intestine, comparable levels of induction were observed for uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase and glutathione transferase; CYP1A was unaffected. Oral omeprazole had similar effects. Immunoblotting showed corresponding changes in the amounts of these enzymes. Omeprazole increased the activities of CYP1A (19% to 167%; p = 0.014) and uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (11% to 68%; p = 0.04) in the duodenal biopsy specimens of all six human volunteers; glutathione transferase was unaffected. Thus, omeprazole coinduced multiple xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in the rat and human. The pattern of induction differed in the rat and human, consistent with known differences in genetic regulatory elements in the two species.