Immunocytological and in situ hybridization evidence supports the hypothesis that at meiosis of chiasmate organisms, chromosomal disjunction and reductional segregation of sister centromeres are integrated with synaptonemal complex functions. The Mr 125,000 synaptic protein, Syn1, present between cores of paired homologous chromosomes during pachytene of meiotic prophase, is lost from synaptonemal complexes coordinately with homolog separation at diplotene. Separation is constrained by exchanges between non-sister chromatids, the chiasmata. We show that the Mr 30,000 chromosomal core protein, Cor1, associated with sister chromatid pairs, remains an axial component of post-pachytene chromosomes until metaphase I. We demonstrate that at this time the chromatin loops are still attached to their cores. A reciprocal exchange event between two homologous non-sister chromatids is therefore immobilized by anchorage of sister chromatids to their respective cores. Cores thus contribute to the sister chromatid cohesiveness required for maintenance of chiasmata and proper chromosomal disjunction. Cor1 protein accumulates in juxtaposition to pairs of sister centromeres during metaphase I. Presumably, independent movement of sister centromeres at anaphase I is restricted by Cor1 anchorage. That reductional separation of sister centromeres is mediated by Cor1, is supported by the dissociation of Cor1 from separating sister centromeres at anaphase II and by its absence from mitotic anaphases.