Thymopoietins (TMPOs, previously abbreviated TPs) alpha (75 kDa), beta (51 kDa), and gamma (39 kDa) are related nuclear proteins expressed in many or all tissues. TMPO alpha is present diffusely throughout the nucleus, while TMPOs beta and gamma are localized to the nuclear membrane. Here we report the cloning and analysis of a single TMPO gene encoding TMPOs alpha, beta, and gamma, which are produced by alternative mRNA splicing, as previously inferred from cDNA sequences. The eight exons of the TMPO gene are spread over approximately 35 kb. Exon 4, which is spliced into TMPO alpha mRNA, contains sequences that encode a putative basic nuclear localization motif. Exon 8, which is spliced into TMPO beta and gamma mRNAs, encodes a hydrophobic putative membrane-spanning domain that is thought to target TMPOs beta and gamma to the nuclear membrane. TMPO beta appears to be the human homologue of the recently described rat protein LAP2 (lamina-associated polypeptide 2), which is thought to play an important role in the regulation of nuclear architecture by binding lamin B1 and chromosomes in a manner regulated by phosphorylation during mitosis (K. Furukawa and L. Gerace, La Jolla, pers. comm., 22 Nov. 1994). The human TMPO gene maps to chromosome band 12q22.