A growing body of evidence suggests that rhesus macaques may be a good model of human brain aging. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to measure regional cerebral metabolic rates for glucose (rCMRglc) in young and aged rhesus macaques to determine if age-related decreases, such as those reported in humans, also occur in macaques. Whereas the aged animals had lower metabolic rates in every brain region studied, the largest differences were in left temporal cortex. The largest differences were also observed in left temporal cortex when relative rCMRglc values were used. Both rCMRglc and relative rCMRglc were marked by substantial individual variation within the aged group. This variation may parallel the variation observed in behavioral studies. Future studies that include both PET and behavioral measures should help determine if there is a relationship between age-related changes in rCMRglc and behavior.