A 54-year-old man presented with an acute painless loss of vision. He had a three-month history of malaise, weight loss, and episodic sweating. Physical examination showed a thin, febrile man with a petechial rash over the lower legs. Cardiac auscultation revealed an apical thrill and pansystolic murmur. Dental hygiene was poor. The diagnosis, mechanisms and treatment of retinal artery occlusion associated with bacterial endocarditis are reviewed.