To determine occurrence and sources of farm-work-related injury, we conducted a population-based, prospective study in a large clinic and hospital serving a defined rural area. The population at risk was identified through a unique demographic and medical records linkage system and a special agricultural census. Cases were 510 individuals who sought inpatient or outpatient care from May 1990 through April 1992 from a physician or chiropractor for harm resulting from acute exposure to energy. One per 31 farm residents was treated annually for a farm-work-related injury. Eight percent of these cases were hospitalized. Animals were the most frequent source of injury. Severity did not differ between cases associated with animals, machinery, falls, or chemicals. Thirty-eight percent of farm-work-related injury cases occurred in nonfarm residents. Injury risk was 2.5 times greater among dairy farm residents than among nondairy farm residents, 352.0 vs. 141.0 cases per 10,000 person-years, respectively. Adult male farm residents had 556.9 injuries per 10,000 person-years and 21.3 injuries per million hours of farm work.