Thirty-nine previously treated Hodgkin's disease (HD) patients were immunized with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (7-OMPC) followed by one dose of 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (23-PS). To determine the priming effect of 7-OMPC vaccine, their antibody responses to six serotypes contained in both vaccines were compared to those of 57 HD patients who received 23-PS vaccine only. The geometric mean antibody concentrations after immunization with 23-PS vaccine were significantly higher for five of the six measured serotypes in HD patients primed with 7-OMPC vaccine compared with responses in HD patients who received 23-PS vaccine only. The mean of the six antibody concentrations was significantly higher for the primed group at 12.5 micrograms/mL and 7.76 micrograms/mL, respectively (P = .015). Priming with a conjugate vaccine should be considered as a strategy to protect high-risk adults.