Serum antibodies from human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected long-term non-progressors (LTNPs) and non-LTNPs were evaluated for virus neutralization and infection enhancement in vitro. Sera from LTNPs had higher average titers of neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 strains IIIB and MN and more frequently neutralized primary isolates from progressors (14.9% vs. 1.3%, P = .002). Replication-competent HIV-1 was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and lymph nodes of 3 LTNPs. All viruses from LTNPs had a non-syncytium-inducing phenotype, were resistant to neutralization by autologous serum obtained at the time of virus isolation, and showed little evidence of a heightened sensitivity to neutralization by heterologous sera. Complement-mediated, antibody-dependent enhancement (C'-ADE) of HIV-1IIIB and primary isolates was equally prevalent for sera from LTNPs and non-LTNPs. Results indicate that LTNPs produce vigorous serum antibody responses and that long-term nonprogression is not associated with homologous neutralization or the absence of C'-ADE.