Effects of immobilization on in vivo release of norepinephrine in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in conscious rats

Brain Res. 1995 Aug 7;688(1-2):242-6. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(95)00566-9.


Release of norepinepriine (NE) and its metabolites in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) was examined using in vivo microdialysis in conscious rats before, during and after 2 h of immobilization. Microdialysate levels of NE and of dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) increased by 170-290% above basal levels during the 1st h of immobilization and decreased gradually thereafter. In contrast, levels of dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) increased gradually over the entire period of immobilization, peaking at 110% above baseline levels. These findings indicate that in rats a single immobilization is attended by increased synthesis, release and reuptake of NE within the BNST. The results are consistent with previous findings relating to stress-induced release of NE in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus, central nucleus of the amygdala and cerebral cortex and suggest concurrent noradrenergic activation in several brains centers during acute stress.

MeSH terms

  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid / metabolism
  • Amygdala / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Male
  • Microdialysis
  • Norepinephrine / metabolism*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Restraint, Physical


  • 3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetic Acid
  • Norepinephrine