This study was designed to determine the production of the chemokine cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) by primary rat alveolar type II (ATII) cells upon stimulation with exogenous and endogenous proinflammatory factors. Cultures of primary rat ATII cells were exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) over a 16 hour period and the production of CINC both apically and basolaterally was measured by ELISA. Compared to unstimulated (UNS) cultures, LPS, IL-1 beta and TNF alpha were found to significantly increase the level of CINC detected in culture by two, four and sixteen hours post stimulation, respectively. ATII cells also demonstrated a polar secretion of CINC. The accumulation of CINC basolaterally was significantly more than apically; 133%, 45%, 117% and 123% for UNS, IL-1 beta, LPS and TNF alpha respectively. We demonstrated that primary rat ATII cells may participate in the chemokine network during inflammation by the production of CINC upon stimulation with endogenous and exogenous factors.