A randomized trial of self-help materials, personalized feedback, and telephone counseling with nonvolunteer smokers

J Consult Clin Psychol. 1995 Dec;63(6):1005-14. doi: 10.1037//0022-006x.63.6.1005.


The incremental effects of (a) a self-help booklet alone, (b) self-help booklet with computer-generated personalized feedback, and (c) self-help booklet, personalized feedback, and outreach telephone counseling were evaluated in a population-based, nonvolunteer sample of smokers. Smokers (N = 1,137) were identified through a telephone survey of a random sample of 5,903 enrollees in a health maintenance organization and randomized to a no-treatment control group or 1 of the 3 intervention conditions. Smoking status was ascertained 3, 12, and 21 months postrandomization. Cotinine validation of self-reported cessation was obtained at the 12-month follow-up. Overall, the telephone counseling significantly increased smoking cessation at the 3-month follow-up, but not at 12 or 21 months. Among smokers who were precontemplative at baseline, telephone counseling significantly increased prevalent abstinence at 3 and 12 months and continuous abstinence at 21 months (defined as self-reported abstinence at 3, 12, and 21 months).

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Counseling*
  • Feedback*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Motivation
  • Programmed Instructions as Topic*
  • Smoking Cessation / psychology*
  • Telephone*
  • Treatment Outcome