Quantitative in vivo 19F-MRI was performed in a rat model to monitor partial oxygen pressure (pO2) using a perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsion as contrast agent. On Days 1, 4, and 8 postinjection of the PFC emulsion, transaxial T1 and pO2 maps were acquired of the abdomen of rats that were consecutively ventilated with pure oxygen, air, and a mixture of 10% oxygen and 90% nitrogen. The images had a resolution of 0.75 mm x 0.75 mm x 2 mm and a total acquisition time of 24 min. In these images it was possible to distinguish between different vessels and hepatic and splenic tissue in the selected imaging plane. Serial 19F-MRI measurements on the different days postinjection of the PFC allowed to determine separately the pO2 of arterial and venous blood and the intracellular pO2 in macrophages of the liver and spleen.