The additive effects of quinine on antidepressant drugs in the forced swimming test in mice

Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1995 Sep;121(2):173-9. doi: 10.1007/BF02245627.


The aim of this study was to investigate if quinine plus antidepressant drugs (ADS) leads to an additive effect in the forced swimming test. Quinine (0.125, 0.5 mg/kg) and ADS (subactive doses) were given IP 45 and 30 min, respectively, before the test. When combined with QUIN, all drugs that act via inhibition of 5-HT uptake (imipramine, amitriptyline, citalopram, paroxetine, fluoxetine and fluvoxamine) significantly increased the swimming time of mice. Among trazodone, mianserin and iprindole (atypical ADS), only iprindole combined with quinine decreased the immobility (increased swimming) of the animals. The specific noradrenaline (NA) uptake inhibitors, desipramine and viloxazine, but not maprotiline, were also found to reduce the immobility time when pretreated with quinine. The mixed monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitor (pargyline) and MAO-A inhibitor (moclobemide) also shortened the period of immobility whereas the MAO-B inhibitor (nialamide) and the dopamine (DA) uptake inhibitor (bupropion) did not. Quinine's additive effects on several types of ADS is likely a result of blockade of potassium channels.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antidepressive Agents / pharmacology*
  • Behavior, Animal / drug effects*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Combinations
  • Locomotion / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Quinine / pharmacology*
  • Swimming


  • Antidepressive Agents
  • Drug Combinations
  • Quinine