Furancarboxylic acid (3-carboxy-4-methyl-5-propyl-2-furanpropionic acid, CMPF), an inhibitor of erythropoiesis, cannot be removed by conventional hemodialysis due to its strong albumin binding, resulting in its accumulation in uremic serum. We used protein-leaking hemodialysis with BK-F dialyzers in 8 uremic patients for 4 months to determine its effect on the serum levels of CMPF. Pre-hemodialysis serum levels of CMPF significantly decreased to about 50% after 4 months by protein-leaking hemodialysis, while those of BUN and serum creatinine did not change significantly. Pre-hemodialysis hematocrit and hemoglobin levels significantly increased by protein-leaking hemodialysis. These results indicate that protein-leaking hemodialysis reduces serum levels of albumin-bound CMPF and improves anemia.