Reversal of intrinsic DNA bends in the IFN beta gene enhancer by transcription factors and the architectural protein HMG I(Y)

Cell. 1995 Dec 29;83(7):1101-11. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(95)90137-x.


In this paper, we investigate DNA bending induced by proteins required for virus induction of the human interferon-beta (IFN beta) gene. We show that NF-kappa B-DNA complexes that are functionally distinct in the context of the IFN beta enhancer are also conformationally distinct and that two sites in the enhancer contain in-phase bends that are counteracted or reversed by the binding of NF-kappa B, ATF-2/c-Jun, and HMG I(Y). Strikingly, this modulation of intrinsic enhancer architecture results in an orientation that favors predicted protein-protein interactions in a functional nucleoprotein complex, the enhanceosome. Furthermore, the subtle modulation of DNA structure by HMG I(Y) in this process distinguishes it from other architectural factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Activating Transcription Factor 2
  • Base Sequence
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein / genetics
  • DNA Probes
  • DNA, Circular / analysis
  • DNA, Circular / ultrastructure
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic / genetics*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Viral / genetics
  • HeLa Cells / physiology
  • High Mobility Group Proteins / genetics*
  • Humans
  • Interferon-beta / genetics*
  • Leucine Zippers / genetics
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • NF-kappa B / genetics
  • Nucleic Acid Conformation
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Y Chromosome / genetics*


  • ATF2 protein, human
  • Activating Transcription Factor 2
  • Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein
  • DNA Probes
  • DNA, Circular
  • High Mobility Group Proteins
  • NF-kappa B
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun
  • Transcription Factors
  • Interferon-beta