Control of apoptosis by the cellular ATP level

FEBS Lett. 1996 Jan 8;378(2):107-10. doi: 10.1016/0014-5793(95)01431-4.


Apoptosis is a physiological form of cell death. Its causes and execution mechanisms are not clearly understood. Oxidative stress, nitric oxide and its congeners, Ca2+, proteases, nucleases, and mitochondria are considered mediators of apoptosis. At present their importance and exact role are elusive but it is clear that mitochondria are both the target and the source of oxidative stress, nitric oxide, and Ca2+. The mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi), which is the driving force for mitochondrial ATP synthesis, declines during apoptosis, and maintenance of delta psi prevents apoptosis. Since apoptosis is highly regulated and involves the activity of hydrolytic enzymes, chromatin condensation and vesicle formation apoptosis is likely to have a high energy demand. We propose that the cellular ATP level is an important determinant for cell death. This hypothesis is supported by circumstantial evidence, is consistent with the available data, has a corrolary in aging, and is amenable to direct experimental testing particularly with flow cytometry as a promising tool.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adenosine Triphosphate / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Apoptosis / physiology*
  • Calcium / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Mitochondria / physiology
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2


  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2
  • Nitric Oxide
  • Adenosine Triphosphate
  • Calcium