The major neuritogenic protein of peripheral nerve myelin is the P2 protein. Human P2 is a candidate autoantigen in inflammatory demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. Since human P2 is not readily available, we produced full-length recombinant human P2 protein (rhP2) in Escherichia coli. RhP2 was recognized by neuritogenic rat T cell lines and induced experimental autoimmune neuritis in Lewis rats. Production of rhP2 allowed the generation of human T cell lines reactive to the autologous protein. Studies of human T cell autoreactivity as well as efforts to use hP2 as a tolerogen will be facilitated by the large-scale expression of rhP2.