AII-amacrine cells were characterized from Golgi-stained sections and wholemounts of the macaque monkey retina. Similar to other mammalian retinae, they are narrow-field, bistratified amacrine cells with lobular appendages in the outer half of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and a bushy, smoother dendritic tree in the inner half. AII cells of the monkey retina were stained immunocytochemically with antibodies against the calcium-binding protein calretinin. Their retinal mosaic was elaborated, and their density distribution across the retina was measured. Convergence within the rod pathway was calculated. Electron microscopy of calretinin-immunolabelled sections was used to study the synaptic connections of the AII cells. They receive a major input from rod bipolar cells, and their output is largely onto cone bipolar cells. Thus, the rod pathway of the primate retina follows the general mammalian scheme as it is known from the cat, the rabbit, and the rat retina. The spatial sampling properties of macaque AII-amacrine cells are discussed and related to human scotopic visual acuity.