Characterization of resistance to organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid insecticides in field populations of Aedes aegypti from Venezuela

J Am Mosq Control Assoc. 1995 Sep;11(3):315-22.


Resistance to the organophosphates (OP) temephos, malathion, and pirimiphos methyl, and the carbamate propoxur was found to be low (< 5-fold) in 3 Aedes aegypti populations collected from Falcon and Aragua states of Venezuela. Resistance to chlorpyrifos (OP), permethrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroids) was moderate (7-fold) in both populations. Mechanisms of resistance were investigated with the synergists piperonyl butoxide (mixed function oxidase inhibitor) and S, S, S-tributyl phosphorothioate (DEF, an esterase inhibitor). Nonspecific esterase and oxidase enzymes played a significant role in OP and carbamate resistance, respectively. Resistance to pyrethroid insecticides was not affected by DEF or piperonyl butoxide. This suggested the presence of another mechanism such as altered target site sensitivity (kdr). Biochemical tests showed significantly greater amounts of esterase activity in field strains, whereas insensitive acetylcholinesterase was not involved in either OP or carbamate resistance. These results must be considered in future control programs for Ae. aegypti, because OPs and pyrethroids are currently used in vector control in most countries of Central and South America.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aedes*
  • Animals
  • Biological Assay
  • Carbamates*
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Insecticide Resistance
  • Insecticides*
  • Mosquito Control
  • Organophosphorus Compounds*
  • Pyrethrins*
  • Venezuela


  • Carbamates
  • Insecticides
  • Organophosphorus Compounds
  • Pyrethrins