Pseudohypoparathyroidism type Ia (PHP-Ia) is a hereditary disease characterized by resistance to PTH and other hormones that act via cAMP. Patients have deficient activity of Gs alpha, the alpha subunit of the G protein, which couples hormone receptors to stimulation of adenylate cyclase. We describe two new mutations discovered in two sporadic patients with PHP-Ia. Using genomic DNA, we have amplified exons 2-13 of the Gs alpha gene (GNAS1) by PCR, and sequenced the resulting products. Both patients had Albright's hereditary osteodystrophy, resistance to multiple hormones, and deficient Gs alpha activity. In the first patient, a deletion of a C in exon 5 at codon 115 was found. In the second patient, an insertion of a C in exon 10 at codon 267 was detected. Both these heterozygous mutations cause frameshift, and predict decreased production of Gs alpha. This report adds two new Gs alpha mutations to the known ten mutations recently described.