The in vitro effect of subinhibitory and inhibitory concentrations of ofloxacin and G-CSF on the bactericidal activity of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) against Escherichia coli was investigated. PMNL obtained from healthy volunteers were incubated with different concentrations of G-CSF and ofloxacin for 180 min. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ofloxacin and even 1/4 x MIC enhanced the bactericidal activity of PMNL. G-CSF at a concentration of 6,000 units/ml led to a significant improvement of the bactericidal activity of PMNL. The combination of 6,000 units/ml of G-CSF and ofloxacin in inhibitory as well as subinhibitory concentrations, however, showed a significant synergistic effect on the antibacterial activity of PMNL during the complete incubation period. Combinations of G-CSF and antibiotics could therefore be beneficial for infected patients, especially those with impaired cellular host defense.