Food sources and dietary intakes of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone) in the American diet: data from the FDA Total Diet Study

J Am Diet Assoc. 1996 Feb;96(2):149-54. doi: 10.1016/s0002-8223(96)00044-2.


Objective: To identify important food sources and estimate dietary intake of vitamin K-1 (phylloquinone) in the American diet.

Design: Core foods from the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Total Diet Study (TDS), which was based on the 1987-88 Nationwide Food Consumption Survey (NFCS), were analyzed for vitamin K-1. These nutrient values were then applied to the FDA TDS consumption model.

Subjects: Of the NFCS participants within the 14 selected age-gender groups, 3,634 who had 3 days of dietary data were included in the FDA TDS consumption model.

Main outcome measures: Vitamin K-1 intakes were estimated for each of the age-gender groups; the percentage contribution of each food item to total intake of vitamin K-1 was calculated from the FDA TDS model.

Results: Of the 14 age-gender groups selected, the 25- to 30-year-old women and men consumed less than the current Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for vitamin K. In contrast, formula-fed infants had estimated vitamin K-1 intakes six times greater than the RDA. All other groups consumed amounts within the recommended daily intakes but lower than 90 micrograms/day. The top contributors to total vitamin K-1 intake were dark-green vegetables, although the fats and oils added to mixed dishes and desserts were also important contributors. The proportion of vitamin K-1 obtained from vegetables increased with age.

Applications: The data identify important dietary sources of vitamin K-1 in the American diet. This knowledge can be used to develop dietary assessment instruments for use in epidemiologic studies.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • Food Analysis*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant Food / analysis
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Sex Factors
  • Vegetables / chemistry
  • Vitamin K 1 / administration & dosage*
  • Vitamin K 1 / analysis


  • Vitamin K 1