The diagnostic accuracy of transvaginal sonography (TVS) and hysteroscopy in the assessment of endometrial pathology was studied comparing retrospectively both methods with the results of histologic findings after dilatation and curettage (D&C) performed in the last four years on 467 patients, 155 of whom were in postmenopause. Endometrial thickness, tissue texture, myometrial invasion and haemodynamic characteristics were studied with TVS. Uterine cavity, endometrial patterns and superficial vascularization were evaluated by hysteroscopy. For the purpose of this study all histologic findings were subdivided to a) normal (206 cases); b) benign lesions (240 cases); c) atypical hyperplasia or adenocarcinoma (21 cases). In our experience hysteroscopy was superior to TVS in detecting endometrial pathology. Both techniques were more sensitive in detecting premalignant and malignant lesions. Considering endometrial thickness evaluated with TVS as a single parameter in patients in postmenopause, we found that the most sensitive cut-off for defining normality was 3 mm; nevertheless, in the group of patients that had an endometrial thickness equal to or less than 3 mm there were 2 cases of malignancy. Therefore, neither TVS nor hysteroscopy are sufficiently reliable to replace curettage in the diagnosis of endometrial pathology.