The polymerase chain reaction was applied to capillary blood spots dried on filter paper from 20 parasitologically proved cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), 21 subclinical cases, and 11 healthy controls in a longitudinal study of anthroponotic VL in Baringo District, Kenya. Leishmania deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was detected 10.5 months before diagnosis and up to 3 years after diagnosis and apparently successful treatment. Subclinical cases can have detectable circulating parasite DNA in their blood. These findings may indicate that subclinical cases can be a reservoir and formerly treated VL patients can remain a reservoir for a long time. Xenodiagnosis should be performed on subclinical cases and former VL patients to establish their role in transmission of VL in Kenya.