Examination of mammalian basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors using a yeast one-hybrid system

DNA Cell Biol. 1996 Jan;15(1):1-8. doi: 10.1089/dna.1996.15.1.


Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play diverse roles in controlling many developmental events. Although a great deal is understood about how bHLH factors activate gene transcription via E-box DNA consensus sequences, studies of bHLH factor function in higher eukaryotes often have been hindered by the presence of multiple family members. As a first step in developing a simplified in vivo system to examine bHLH factor activities, we examined whether the bHLH muscle regulatory factors MRF4 and MyoD function appropriately in yeast. We show that Gal4-MRF4 fusion proteins, or native MRF4 proteins, activate expression of an E-box HIS3 reporter gene whereas MyoD proteins remain inactive. Deletion of the MRF4 transcription activation domain (TAD) or point mutations that abolish MRF4 DNA interactions inhibit HIS3 expression. Substitution of the MRF4 TAD with the Gal4 TAD also produces a functional protein, demonstrating that these transcription activation domains are functionally equivalent in yeast. Replacement of the MRF4 TAD with the related MyoD TAD, however, generates an inactive protein, suggesting that some specificity exists between bHLH family members. Using this experimental system, we also demonstrate that mammalian cDNA libraries can be screened successfully for cDNAs encoding novel bHLH proteins that interact with E-box targets. Thus, this in vivo yeast system provides a novel approach to facilitate functional studies of bHLH factor regulation.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Gene Deletion
  • Gene Expression Regulation
  • Genes, Reporter / genetics
  • Helix-Loop-Helix Motifs*
  • Mammals
  • MyoD Protein / genetics*
  • MyoD Protein / metabolism
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors / genetics*
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors / metabolism
  • Point Mutation
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins / metabolism
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics*
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Transcription Factors / genetics*
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism


  • MyoD Protein
  • Myogenic Regulatory Factors
  • Recombinant Fusion Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • myogenic factor 6