The dosage compensation regulators MLE, MSL-1 and MSL-2 are interdependent since early embryogenesis in Drosophila

Mech Dev. 1995 Oct;53(2):223-33. doi: 10.1016/0925-4773(95)00438-7.


We have analyzed the expression pattern and localization of MLE, MLS-1, MSL-2, and histone H4Ac16 during embryogenesis to determine when msl-dependent dosage compensation begins. Maternal MSL-1 and MLE are present in both sexes at fertilization. MSL-2 lacks a maternal component, and male-specific zygotic expression is detectable at the end of blastoderm. During germ band extension, MSL-1, MSL-2, MLE, and histone H4Ac16 display coincident sub-nuclear localization in male embryos. In embryos lacking one of the MSL proteins, the sub-nuclear localization of the other MSLs and of histone H4Ac16 is not detected. We conclude that the MSL proteins associate with the X chromosome and are interdependent since early embryogenesis.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cell Nucleus / chemistry
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone*
  • DNA Helicases*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins*
  • Dosage Compensation, Genetic*
  • Drosophila / embryology
  • Drosophila / genetics*
  • Drosophila Proteins*
  • Embryo, Nonmammalian / physiology
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental / physiology*
  • Germ Cells / physiology
  • Histones / physiology
  • Insect Hormones / physiology
  • Male
  • Nuclear Proteins / analysis
  • Nuclear Proteins / physiology*
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Subcellular Fractions / chemistry
  • Transcription Factors / physiology


  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Drosophila Proteins
  • Histones
  • Insect Hormones
  • Nuclear Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • mle protein, Drosophila
  • msl-1 protein, Drosophila
  • msl-2 protein, Drosophila
  • DNA Helicases