Generalized Immune Activation in Pulmonary Tuberculosis: Co-Activation With HIV Infection

Clin Exp Immunol. 1996 Jan;103(1):30-4. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2249.1996.907600.x.


Parameters of immune activation/differentiation were studied in a group of newly diagnosed HIV- and HIV+ pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Compared with controls, HLA-DR expression on both CD4 and CD8 T cells from the HIV- TB patients was approximately doubled; HLA-DR on T cells from the HIV+ group was tripled. The monocytes from both groups of patients expressed abnormally high levels of the Fc gamma receptors I and III. Serum levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), neopterin and beta 2-microglobulin were increased in HIV- and even more so in HIV+ TB patients. The expression of HLA-DR on T cell subsets and of Fc gamma R on monocytes correlated with each other, but not with serum activation markers. This pattern of non-specific activation during TB infection may be associated with enhanced susceptibility to HIV infection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte / biosynthesis*
  • Biomarkers / analysis
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV Seronegativity
  • HLA-DR Antigens / biosynthesis
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Monocytes / metabolism
  • Receptors, Fc / biosynthesis
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / complications
  • Tuberculosis, Pulmonary / immunology*


  • Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte
  • Biomarkers
  • HLA-DR Antigens
  • Receptors, Fc