Alterations in the Immune Response of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected Subjects Treated With an HIV-specific Protease Inhibitor, Ritonavir

J Infect Dis. 1996 Feb;173(2):321-9. doi: 10.1093/infdis/173.2.321.

Abstract

Effects of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 protease inhibitor, ritonavir, were evaluated in 21 patients enrolled in a phase I/II study. The magnitude and rates of CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte increase, changes in subsets of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes, and proliferative responses to mitogen and antigens were analyzed. Significant increases were noted in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte counts; numbers of CD4CD45RO lymphocytes increased significantly by week 1 of therapy. Increases in the CD4CD45RA subset were observed at week 4. Reductions in the percentage of CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes expressing CD38 were noted. Increases in proliferative responses to phytohemagglutinin were noted in 6 of 7 patients and correlated with duration of virus load suppression. Increased responses to recall antigens and to HIV-specific proteins were observed. Treatment with ritonavir produced alterations in the immune system that included changes in T cell subset distribution and increases in CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte numbers and of lymphocyte function.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1
  • Antigens, CD*
  • Antigens, Differentiation / immunology
  • Antiviral Agents / therapeutic use*
  • CD4 Lymphocyte Count
  • CD4-CD8 Ratio
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Double-Blind Method
  • HIV Infections / drug therapy*
  • HIV Infections / immunology*
  • HIV Protease / drug effects
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors / therapeutic use*
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Immune System / drug effects
  • Leukocyte Common Antigens / immunology
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • N-Glycosyl Hydrolases / immunology
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1
  • RNA, Viral / drug effects
  • Ritonavir
  • Thiazoles / therapeutic use*
  • Valine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Valine / therapeutic use
  • Viremia / drug therapy
  • Viremia / genetics
  • Viremia / immunology

Substances

  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • Antiviral Agents
  • HIV Protease Inhibitors
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • RNA, Viral
  • Thiazoles
  • Leukocyte Common Antigens
  • Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase, Non-Receptor Type 1
  • N-Glycosyl Hydrolases
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase
  • CD38 protein, human
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1
  • HIV Protease
  • Valine
  • Ritonavir